I think that you have read previous blog of "Punctuation and Capital Letters" and understood about it clearly. Now we will study the remaining part of "Punctuation and Capital Letters" in this blog.
You can read first blog of Punctuation and Capital Letters Part A
You can read third blog of Punctuation and Capital Letters Part C
You can read fourth blog of Punctuation and Capital Letters Part D
4. The Comma (,)
The comma represents the shortest pause. Its main uses are:
When several words of, the same part of speech follow one another without conjunction, commas are placed between them:
I bought pens, pencils and books.
He sells fresh, delicious, juicy oranges.
Slowly, silently, we marched.
The last two words are sometimes connected by and or ‘or’. A comma after the word preceding and or “or” in this connection may or may not be used:
She was calm, wise, modest, and industrious.
She was calm, wise, modest and industrious.
When words of the same class follow each other in pairs, a comma is placed between each pair:
The rich and the poor, the high and the low, all are the children of God.
To mark off a direct quotation:
She said, “I love you.”
“I love you,” She said.
To separate the words yes or no form the rest of the sentence:
No, you can’t go.
Yes, India is dear to us.
To separate words, phrases or clauses let into the body of a sentence:
Well, then, what about a cup of tea?
I, too, shall support you.
She, after all has the sweetest voice.
Ranjit singh, it is said, greatly loved his subjects.
Before and after a participle phrase which can be expanded into a clause?
My friend, having finished his work, visited me.
Note: The phrase ‘having finished his work’ can be expanded into the clause’ after he had finished his work.’
To separate explanatory phrases:
The room is rectangular, 20 meters in length and 10 meters in breadth.
After the word well when it is used as an interjection.
Well, we must fight to the last.
To mark the omission and to save the repetition of a verb or any other important word or words:
He took his seat; I, mine.
She is a teacher; her brother, a doctor.
To separate question tags:
You’ll play cricket, won’t you?
Mahatama Gandhi was great, wasn’t he?
To separate an adverb clause from the principal clause when it is placed before the principal clause or is inserted in it:
If it rains today, we shall not go.
When I went to see him, he was not at home.
He will, if he can, help me.
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